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Biblical Manuscripts

The Leningrad Codex, or Leningradensis, is the oldest complete Hebrew Bible still preserved. Dating to the year 1010 C.E., the manuscript contains the whole Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament in Hebrew). In 1990 a team from the West Semitic Research Project and the Ancient Biblical Manuscript Center traveled to the Russian National Library in St. Petersburg to photograph all 1,000 pages of the Bible.


The images of the Leningrad Codex in color are now in the InscriptiFact Digital Image Library.

The Leningrad Codex: A Facsimile Edition

General Editor: David Noel Freedman
Managing Editor: Astrid B. Beck
Associate Editors: Bruce E. Zuckerman and Marilyn J. Lundberg
Publication Editor: James A. Sanders
Photographers: Bruce E. Zuckerman, Kenneth A. Zuckerman, Marilyn J. Lundberg, and Garth I. Moller

Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing in Grand Rapids, Michigan, and Brill Academic Publishers in Leiden, the Netherlands, published in 1998 a facsimile edition of the Leningrad Codex using the photographs taken in 1990. The facsimile was intended as a scholar's edition, and most of the pages are in black and white. The sixteen illuminated pages of the Codex, however, are printed in color. At this time the facsimile edition is out of print.

Leningrad Codex General Information.

Leningrad f.40b Folio 40b - a page of biblical text.

Leningrad Carpet Page An illuminated page.

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